(20 February 2017) In 2016 the final construction phase of European XFEL - a large international research facility – was largely completed as a result of the efforts of dozens of European companies and institutions, including Research Centre DESY (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron), JSC "NIIEFA" (or Efremov Institute) and Luvata.
Image: European X-ray Free-Electron Laser XFEL. Source:© DESY 2017
European XFEL is a 3.5-kilometres long free-electron laser facility, based on a superconducting particle accelerator, that will generate extremely short and bright X-ray light flashes and will enable new views of the structure and fast processing of the nanocosmos. There will be significant changes in 2017, with the transition from construction and commissioning to its operation phase. DESY is the operator of the accelerator.
The commissioning will take place over the coming few months enabling external scientists to perform experiments at the facility for the first time in the second half of 2017.
Once in full operation, the European XFEL will generate extremely intense, ultrashort x-ray flashes - 27000 times per second and with a brilliance that is a billion times higher than that of the best conventional x-ray sources. "The x-ray flashes act as a super powerful high-speed camera that will enable us to map atomic details of viruses, film chemical reactions and the processes in the interior of planets," explains Dr. Bernward Krause, DESY, XFEL WP-12 Work Package Leader.
The Efremov Institute in Saint Petersburg, Russia collaborated with DESY to manufacture all the normal conducting electromagnets for the European XFEL particle accelerator. The whole assembly of the electromagnetic equipment manufactured and constructed by NIIEFA consists of 715 magnets of 23 types and 45 options: 101 dipoles, 276 quadropoles, 60 sextupoles, 3 octupoles, 275 correctors and spare coils for the different types of magnets. Most of these magnets (excluding correctors) were produced using Luvata's conductors.
Mileon by Luvata contained within the electromagnets is over 20 kilometers of Luvata's jointless hollow conductor branded Mileon®. Hollow conductors are used in a number of applications including particle accelerators, MRI scanners, plasma research devices and induction furnaces. Mileon is manufactured using only oxygen-free copper offering electrical conductivity of 101-102 %IACS and thermal conductivity of 390 W/Km.
"A leak inside a magnet coil cannot be repaired and the whole magnet must be replaced," indicates Dr. Eduard Bondarchuk, NIIEFA, Head of calculation and design department, which calculated and designed all European XFEL magnets. "Unlike traditional hollow conductors where every joint in a magnet can cause additional work and also pose a major risk for leaks, Luvata's Mileon gives us peace of mind on a project of European XFEL's scale. We've been collaborating with Luvata for over 20 years and they haven't let us down."
"We want to make the most of copper's inherent characteristic of electrical conductivity," reflects Tuomas Korvenkangas, Product Manager with Luvata Special Products in Pori, Finland. "Having the opportunity to contribute to a research project like European XFEL that could help us understand the mechanisms of diseases still without a cure today and develop new medicines is extremely rewarding for us. We applaud the efforts of European XFEL, DESY, Efremov and the other contributors around the world."
The European x-ray free electron laser (European XFEL) is an X-ray research laser facility is located in the German federal states of Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein.[update] This international research project, a coordinated effort of 11 participating countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland), is constructed such that the electrons produce x-ray light in synchronisation, resulting in high-intensity x-ray pulses with the properties of laser light and at intensities much brighter than those produced by conventional synchrotron light sources.
DESY is one of the world's leading accelerator centres. Researchers use the large-scale facilities at DESY to explore the microcosm in all its variety – from the interactions of tiny elementary particles and the behaviour of new types of nanomaterials to biomolecular processes that are essential to life. The accelerators and detectors that DESY develops and builds are unique research tools. The facilities generate the world's most intense X-ray light, accelerate particles to record energies and open completely new windows onto the universe. DESY cooperates with industry and business to promote new technologies that will benefit society and encourage innovations
About Efremov Institute:
Founded in 1945, the D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus (NIIEFA) in Saint Petersburg, Russia designs and manufactures cyclic accelerators, lasers, thermonuclear devices, electrical magnets and other specially designed equipment for numerous domestic and international customers. In particular NIIEFA has abundant experience and skilled specialists in the field of design, engineering and manufacture of the electromagnets for the accelerators and experimental physical equipment.